Shakespeare at 400

Portrait of Shakespeare, engraving from book frontispieceFour hundred years ago tomorrow, William Shakespeare’s life was over and the story of his cultural legacy began. At what a legacy it has been!

There are countless adaptations of his work, in every artistic medium we’ve come up with over the years. His stories have also inspired new works, often from something as simple as a turn of phrase. Whether you look to the page, the canvas, the stage, or the screen, Shakespeare is bound to be there.

In this post, we share some of the many published versions of Shakespeare’s works — particularly his nearly 40 plays — which we have at Hoole, dating from the late 16th century to the late 20th century. Click on any image below to see a larger version, or come by to see the item in person.


16th-18th century

While we don’t have any Renaissance-era copies of Shakespeare’s plays, we do have facsimile reproductions of a few of his plays, including this copy of the 1597 edition of Romeo and Juliet.

We also have this 1720 edition of history play Richard II, demonstrating that his plays were being performed — and adapted — 100 years after his death.

Title page of 1720 edition of Shakespeare's Richard II

Call number: Rare PR3729.T5 T7 1720

19th century

By the 1800s, Shakespeare was firmly planted in our cultural landscape. For example, here is a whole book of quotations from Shakespeare, from 1851.

Page opening from book of Shakespeare quotations, 1851

Call number: Rare PR2892 .D6 1851

Some Victorians preferred a cleaned-up version of the bard, such as found in the Family Shakespeare series, “in which nothing is added to the original text, but those words and expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read in a family.” It was first published in 1807, but this version is from 1863.

The editor is Thomas Bowdler, from whom we take the word “bowdlerize.” Another popular family-friendly version of Shakespeare came from brother-sister team Charles and Mary Lamb, who turned the plays into prose in Tales from Shakespeare, also first published in 1807.

We also have a set of pocket-sized versions of the plays, published in 1885, with two to three titles in each volume. Pictured below are volumes 2-4, which contain comedies and romances like Measure for Measure, Much Ado About Nothing, and Winter’s Tale.

Spines of volumes 2-4 of the Handy Volume Edition of Shakespeare's complete works

Call number: Rare PR2753 .D2 1885 [vol. 1-13]

Shakespeare was also part of the decorated publisher’s bindings craze at the turn of the 20th century. This 1900 version of As You Like It has an embossed cover in blue, white, and gold, as well as beautiful illustrated pages inside.

20th century

The 1900s found Shakespeare still thriving, especially in colleges and universities. This 1909 copy of Antony and Cleopatra comes from the personal collection of the late English professor Hudson Strode. Not only does it contain lovely etchings to illustrate the story, it also features handwritten notes, presumably Strode’s.

The twentieth century also found Shakespeare making appearances in comic books that adapted classic literature. The editions below are from 1950 (Macbeth), 1964 (A Midsummer Night’s Dream), and 1990 (Hamlet). (All items are from the Sneed Collection, Box 14.)

What the Heck Is a Vertical File?

What the heck is a Vertical File? This is a question I had when I began working in archives. We have three such large archival collections here at Hoole — University of Alabama Pamphlet Files, Alabama Vertical Files, and Rare Vertical Files — and I knew they were home to a variety of strange and wonderful things. But what is a vertical file, exactly, and why do things end up there?

A vertical file is a type of artificial collection, which means it was pulled together by archivists from among an archive’s holdings, rather than donated as a group. According to the Society of American Archivists glossary, these are “materials, often of an ephemeral nature, collected and arranged for ready reference” (source). The key word there is “ephemeral.”

In archives, ephemera are “materials, usually printed documents, created for a specific, limited purpose, and generally designed to be discarded after use” (source). Basically, these are items that may be interesting or helpful or just really cool — and therefore of lasting value –but were perhaps never meant to hang around as long as they have. A vertical file collection usually thrives on these kinds of items.

So these are things worth saving and providing access to that are maybe not substantial enough to warrant creating a whole collection around them. Think of it as the archives catchall. Our wonderful catchall collections occupy 150 boxes and take up 52.5 linear feet on the shelves. Let’s take a look at what kinds of things you’ll find in each, with a few examples

UA Pamphlet Files

This is an eclectic gathering of documents, loosely organized by subject. Much of the content is fliers, programs, and speech texts related to campus events or campus organizations’ activities. In addition, many items come from the Alumni Association, and from various academic units of the University.

Alabama Vertical Files

This collection is organized alphabetically by subject. The finding aid gives a good summary of its contents: materials, both published and unpublished, that document the history of the state of Alabama. These include items such as reprints, pamphlets, typescripts, and photocopies of documents relating to individuals, organizations, cities, and a large number of other topics.

Rare Vertical Files

This collection is highly organized, with most items falling into the following series: Almanacs, Art Catalogs, Associations, Biography, Business, Education, Guidebooks, History, Literature, Travel Brochures. See the finding aid for specifics.

New Finding Aids, Spring 2016, part two

Last month, we shared some of dozens of finding aids that had recently gone online in Acumen.

This week, the focus is on personal collections, including several related to World War II. (Click on any of the images below to see a larger version.)

Notebook page with handwritten text and a technical drawingGuide to the E. M. Lustig papers (MSS.1790)

This collection includes information on, photographs and drawings of, and legal documents relating to many of this Tuscaloosa, Alabama, native’s inventions. It also includes miscellaneous newspaper and magazine clippings, information on his father’s bookstore, personal items, and objects used in his experiments.


Guide to the Louis Lucet papers (MSS.880)

A collection of personal correspondence of this native of France who emigrated to the United States and lived in Huntsville, Alabama. Also includes documents dealing with the history of France in the first half of the nineteenth century.


First page of handwritten letterGuide to the Christopher Heft Papers (MSS.2100)

This is a collection of journal articles about tuberculosis and a series of letters and other correspondence from Christopher Heft, a tuberculosis victim, to his family during his trip to the South in an attempt to cure himself of the disease.


Guide to the Warfield Creath Richardson papers (MSS.1194)

This collection consists primarily of Richardson’s literary output, dating from 1842 to 1914. Included are poems, short stories, essays, plays, and lectures in handwritten and printed drafts, proof sheets, pamphlets, and clippings. There is also a small collection of letters. It contains a letter from Henry Wordsworth Longfellow and two from Thomas M. Owen.


First page of a handwritten diaryGuide to the Nellie F. Drury diary (MSS.3952)

Travel diary from September 1, 1882, to April 2, 1883. Drury was from Saint Louis, Missouri, and the diary covers here traveling to Europe on the Cunard steamship SS Servia. Drury arrived in Liverpool and spent the next month traveling extensively in England, Scotland, France, Monte Carlo, and Italy.


Guide to the O. M. Roberts reminiscences while a student of the University of Alabama (MSS.1199)

Contains a bound, typewritten recollection of this Texas governor’s life as a student of the University of Alabama, 1833-1836. He presented this to the Erosophic Society of the University of Alabama in 1892. The work includes a photograph of a painting of him in approximately 1835.


TelegramGuide to the Helen Becker letters (MSS.1966)

Letters from Sgt. Helen Becker to Lt. Robert O. Haas describing her duties and activities as a Marine Corps Women’s Reservist during World War II.



Guide to the Wallace Sidney Park papers (MSS.3942)

This collection contains letters sent to W. Sidney Park while he was stationed in London during World War II. The letters mostly deal with family matters and securing a contract with the government to build the Park Trainer. The Park Trainer was developed by Park’s company to help train areal photographers. The collection also contains newspaper clippings, magazine articles and photographs.


Handwritten v-mail letter (v-mails were photographically reproduced, and at a smaller scale than the original)Guide to the William B. Shirdan papers (MSS.1266)

Letters from this African American soldier who served in the 310th QM RHD Company during World War II to his family in Montgomery, Alabama.



Guide to the Dodd Sellers papers and militaria (MSS.4159)

The militaria of this Alabama native who was a Master Sergeant in the Marine Corps during World War II.


Page from a WWII guide, depicting a map of FranceGuide to the World War II – U.S. military language guides and phrase books  (PM.017)

Contains a foreign language phrase and guide books for the use of the military.

The International Legacy of Harper Lee

In the days since Alabama writer Harper Lee’s death was reported, the news in the U.S. has been filled with reflections and tributes. Not too surprisingly, obituaries were also common in the U.K., Australia, and other English-speaking countries. But there’s a good bet Harper Lee has been remembered even in places where English is rarely or never spoken — because To Kill a Mockingbird was known all over the world.

At Hoole Library, we have copies in seven foreign languages, published as early as 1960 (the same year as the original) and as recently as 2006.


Translations. Left to right: Spaar de spotvogels [Dutch, 1960], Ne tirez pas sur l’oiseau moqueur [French, 2006], Mei gang cheng gu shi [Chinese, 2006], Убить пересмешника [Russian, 2006], Dræb ikke en sangfugl [Danish, 1963], Wer die Nachtigall stört [German, 1962], Kuin surmaisi satakielen [Finnish, 1961]

An interesting thing happened when I put these titles into Google Translate: they all came up precisely as To Kill A Mockingbird, capital letters and all. Apparently, this is such a common query that the translation engine knew how the phrase being used, so it didn’t bother literally translating the words. (In French, for example, it is “do not shoot the mockingbird”; in Danish, “Do not kill a songbird”; in Finnish, “To kill the nightingale.”)

Since its publication in 1960, To Kill a Mockingbird has been translated into over 40 languages (source). As we mourn Ms. Lee’s passing, we remember the ability of this remarkable book to transcend not just time, but also geography and culture.

Covers from (left to right) 1962, 1974, 1982, 1995, 2010

English covers through the years. Left to right: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1995, 2010


Fair Use in the Archive: Copyright or Right of Privacy?

When special collections libraries hold rare books and other published materials, they face the same challenges as other libraries when it comes to copyright and the allowances of Fair Use. But what about their archival collections — unpublished items like documents and photos?

In some cases, the repository’s contract with the donor dictates that copyright stays with the donor. That would make those items subject to the same policies as published items under copyright, including Fair Use. Luckily, in most cases, donors transfer copyright to the repository, which puts it in the unique position to potentially allow greater access than Fair Use, but certainly within it.

Ornate pre-printed title page from a 1912 diaryIn rare cases, though, a donor stipulates that no one be allowed to access the materials for any reason, usually for a set time. If the archive agrees to that stipulation, those items in essence remain private property. At this point, we leave the world of copyright and enter the realm of privacy law, where Fair Use does not apply.

Right of privacy may also come into play with donations that include personal information not about the donor but about someone else, for example, a relative’s financial or medical records. Then again, if that donated material constitutes intellectual property created by a third party, we’re back under copyright law – after all, the donor can’t transfer to the repository a copyright he or she doesn’t actually hold.

Clearly, Fair Use can be a complicated subject when it comes to unpublished materials. As expressed by the Society of American Archivists (SAA), one of the core values of the archives profession is to balance the pursuit of knowledge with legitimate protections on access. Where it’s not a matter of privacy, fair use is essential to an academic archive’s mission.

For a more in-depth discussion of the role of Fair Use in archival collections, see the SAA webpage Copyright and Unpublished Material.

Chronicling UA’s First Steps Toward Desegregation

Sixty years ago, the first major step was made toward desegregating the University of Alabama. Autherine Lucy, a black woman from Shiloh, Alabama, was enrolled – and a few days later suspended, eventually expelled, though she had done nothing wrong.

We tend to focus on 1963, on the bizarre segregationist pageantry of the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door, perhaps because it was ultimately unsuccessful. This week, we want to focus on something harder to take in but just as important to remember: when segregation unfortunately won.

In addition to this post, see the entry on our sister blog for the digital archives unit: February 1956: When the Eyes of the World Were on Us.

Hoole Library holds several collections related to the Autherine Lucy enrollment controversy. They range from published materials to photos and manuscripts to University Archives.

The Editor’s View

Buford Boone was editor of the Tuscaloosa News from 1947 to 1968, so he was witness to both attempts at integrating the University. Throughout the Lucy incident, Boone wrote editorials hailed across the country for their opposition to mob rule and racism. His most widely republished was this short editorial. (Click the image to see a larger version.)


In 1957, he won a Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing for his coverage of the events. He was also involved in bringing to light the activities of the Ku Klux Klan.

Hoole has a large collection of his materials (Buford Boone papers, MSS.0187), including copies of these editorials and the responses of readers around the community and the U.S. According to the finding aid,

This collection will be of great interest to anyone investigating the history of civil rights in Alabama in particular, or the South in general.  Mr. Boone published the only newspaper in town from 1947-1974, and thus controlled information flow to a very great extent.  His papers are interesting as a study of a man who had convictions and stuck by these convictions even in the face of certain unpleasant consequences.

In addition to the Boone materials, Hoole also has copies of the Tuscaloosa News from that period, as well as other Alabama periodicals, which can be found in the UA Libraries catalog.

The Camera’s Eye

Images of Autherine Lucy can be found in the University’s official collection of images, but two photographers who were there during Lucy’s entrance and the subsequent riots also donated to us their photos. It is conjectured that these men may have been employed as photographers with the University or the local media.

The 6 photographs in the Don Sanford photograph collection (2010.021) show Lucy walking and talking with others.


Though they are likely staged, they at least focus on Lucy herself.

The 23 photographs in the James William Oakley Jr. photograph collection (2010.020) chronicle the protests, both on campus and in downtown Tuscaloosa.


They feature white people engaging in demonstration and vandalism, with no African American faces to be seen.

The World’s Reaction

During and after the events of February 1956, UA President Oliver Carmichael was in an unenviable position. His papers (President Oliver C. Carmichael, RG.013) make up part of the University Archives, and they are open to the public.

In them, among other things, you’ll find Accession #19820768, which contains three entire boxes of correspondence received from people at home and abroad. They reflect a range of opinions on everything from segregation to the students’ violent behavior to Carmichael’s handling of the situation. Here are some examples. (Click any image below to see a larger version.)

Radical South Zine Archive

magazine; especially: a noncommercial often homemade or online publication usually devoted to specialized and often unconventional subject matter

If you’ve never heard of zines, this is a good definition to start with, but it doesn’t really capture the wild world that’s out there. In many ways, zines are natural additions to an archive — personal, of the moment, and unique.

The 60 or so items in the Radical South Zine Archive at Hoole Library range over so many subjects that a full list would be even longer than the list of the publications themselves. In these handmade pieces, you’ll find reflections on art, music, and popular culture. You’ll also hear  people’s thoughts about themselves and society, and the messy intersections in between, like race and ethnicity, religion and spirituality, and gender and sexuality. What’s fascinating about these zines is how they are often both highly personal and highly political — and most of them very much a product of the South.

Here’s a sampling of titles, with descriptions where they were provided by the author. (Click on any image to see a larger version.) Heads up: these writers pull no punches, even on their covers.

For more information about these and other titles, check out the collection’s finding aid.


New Finding Aids, Spring 2016, part one

As a welcome back to campus, we’re sharing some of the collection finding aids that have recently gone online in Acumen — over 100 last month!

This week, the highlights focus on the community: businesses, churches and other organizations, and community life. (Click on any of the images below to see a larger version.)

Guide to the Reward Notice collection

Reward notice from manuscript collection 1188

Contains a collection of reward notices posted in Alabama for persons wanted for crimes committed in Alabama and other states. Various formats of notices are represented, including broadsides, letters, postcards, and telegrams. A large number of them are not dated.

Guide to the Selma and Meridian Railroad ledger and journal 

Two corporate account books for the Selma and Meridian Railroad, 1885: the ledger, which details payments and receipts by date; and the journal, which records them by firm or individual.

Guide to the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company documents

MSS1392_agreement-and-handbookA miscellany of materials relating to the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railway Company’s Fairfield Steelworks, later a part of the United States Steel Company’s industrial empire.

Guide to the Republic Steel records

This collection contains correspondence, security and insurance records, and other materials of this Birmingham steel company.

Guide to the Julian Lee Rayford papers

Portion of a newspaper pageArticles and other writings of this Mobile, Alabama, artist, journalist, folklorist, and muralist who was known for his work to increase awareness of Mobilian Joe Cain who revived Mardi Gras after the Civil War.

Guide to the Harry Mell Ayers papers

Contains the correspondence of this New Deal Democrat and Civil Rights supporter who owned the newspaper, the Anniston Star. The correspondence deals with local, state, and national political campaigns, elections, education, civil rights, editorials, letters to the editor, and events of the times.

Guide to the Grant’s Creek Baptist Church Record

Ledger page from Grant's Creek Baptist ChurchThe collection contains one notebook recording the names of members of Grant’s Creek Baptist Church, located in Fosters, Alabama, the date they joined the church, were baptized, and, in some instances, when they were dismissed, excluded, restored, and died.

Guide to the Sardis Baptist Church, Heiberger, Alabama, records

This collection contains records, 1846-1951, including lists of members, pastors, dismissals, and minutes of monthly meetings, as well as a short history of the church. Baptist church in Heiberger, Perry County, Alabama, established 1846.

Guide to the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons Collection

Roll card for the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Marion, AlabamaThe collection contains twenty-one annual return reports, 1908-1930, of the Temple Lodge, number 425, of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Alabama, at Marion in Perry County.

Guide to the Ku Klux Klan Pamphlet

The collection contains one pamphlet with the names of Tuscaloosa (Alabama) residents who “signed the petition sent to Governor [George] Wallace,” presumably regarding the integration of the University of Alabama, and the names of the employers of the signers.

Guide to the Quaker Club records

Pamphlet for the Quaker Club, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1943-1944Minutes, yearbooks, members’ correspondence, newspaper clippings, photos, event programs, and scrapbooks of this Tuscaloosa, Alabama, young women’s civic organization.

Holiday Cooking

While many of the books at Hoole Library are old and/or rare, some are simply part of a special collection of materials which may include very recent publications. I like to think of them as rare books in training.

One kind of specialized resource we have a lot of is cookbooks. Soon, we’ll be mounting an exhibit with items from the Lupton Collection of African-American Cookbooks and from a donation made by Rev. Wylheme Ragland. However, we have cookbooks in just about every book collection at Hoole, especially the Wade Hall collection, which tends to focus on Southern foodways.

Today, we look at three of these cookbooks, reflecting three December holidays: Hanukkah, Christmas, and Kwanzaa.

Three books stacked on top of each other, with cover titles visible: on bottom, Jewish Holiday Cooking; in the middle, Camille Glenn's Old Fashioned Christmas Cookbook; on top, A Kwanzaa Keepsake

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Remembering Dr. Wade Hall (1934-2015)

It’s been difficult putting together this post commemorating Wade Hall’s life and meditating on his legacy. It’s not because there’s nothing to say; in fact, it’s just the opposite.

“When I began working at the Hoole Library in 2001,” wrote Archivist Donnelly Walton, “I immediately heard about our donor Wade Hall. His name is everywhere here because he generously gave us a little (or a lot) of everything you can imagine would be in a special collections library: photographs, sheet music, books, LPs, 8-tracks, wax cylinders, quilts, and manuscripts.”

Wherever you look at Hoole, Wade is there. So how do you write a memorial for someone who will never really be gone? We decided to share memories of the man and reflect on the way his collections are so fundamental to the life of W. S. Hoole Library.

Many thanks to those who contributed their thoughts, especially Amy Chen, former CLIR postdoctoral fellow, who has allowed me to quote from her forthcoming book, Miracle and Mystery: A Guide to the Wade Hall Collection.

You’ll notice that we tend to refer to Wade by his first name – probably because he was and always will be part of the Hoole family.

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